Compared to CASP15, structures in Round V are categorized either as natural or nano-designed. Natural structures vary from simple to challenging, especially those interacting with proteins. Despite CASP15’s stable metrics, Round V expanded with 23 themes, covering areas like RNA and Viral elements, Aptamers, Ribozymes, and Riboswitches, providing deeper insights into RNA structural intricacies and diminishing convergence in evaluations.